ONLINE RESOURCE

ONLINE RESOURCE

This website helps parents and caregivers understand children’s reactions to injuries, and advises them on how they can help children respond in healthy ways. Visitors can download tip sheets, make care plans, consult self-care resources, and learn when—and how—to get additional help for children. Also available in Spanish! #ChildLife

http://www.aftertheinjury.org/

ST. JUDE CHILD LIFE

SIBLING SUPPORT

SIBLING SUPPORT

Beautiful blog post on the impact a child life specialist can have on a family:

http://www.kateleong.com/2013/04/in-lieu-of-flowers-part-one.html#.VK7nh2TF_d

POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS IN PEDIATRIC CANCER

POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS IN PEDIATRIC CANCER

“Serious illness in a child, such as cancer, is a significant stressor for patients and their families. For many families, a combination of basic supportive interventions and time help them cope with the stress that cancer and treatment may bring to the entire family. But some patients, siblings and caregivers develop persistent traumatic stress reactions, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).”

This article from CHOP contains great information on a topic that needs further research: http://www.chop.edu/centers-programs/cancer-center/posttraumatic-stress-pediatric-cancer#.VK2rRmTF_dd

PODCASTS

PODCASTS

GOOD READS

GOOD READS

Two interesting reads from around the web that are directly relatable to child life:

Preparing a child for surgery: http://sidelinesapp.com/item/this-wont-hurt-a-bit/

How to alleviate common hospital stressors for children with special needs: 

TEDDY BEAR CLINICS: A “PAWS-ON” HEALTH EDUCATION MODEL

TEDDY BEAR CLINICS: A “PAWS-ON” HEALTH EDUCATION MODEL

Teddy bear clinics, also called teddy bear hospitals, are a preventative health and education mechanism for school-aged children to learn about wellness and to decrease anxiety about going to the hospital. They are used worldwide, originating in Boston at the Shriners Burn Institute (Creedon, 1989). The main aims of teddy bear clinics are to reduce young children’s fear of doctors, hospitals, and medical procedures and to enhance their knowledge of health and disease as well as to increase medical students’ understanding of young children (Leonhardt et at., 2013). At a teddy bear clinic, children are exposed to a simulated hospital and act as the parents of a teddy bear patient while rotating through various medical stations set up as different parts of the hospital (Bloch & Toker, 2008).

Teddy bear clinics have been utilized and studied around the world. Research studies done in Germany, Israel, and Norway found that teddy bear clinics gave children better knowledge of their body, health, and disease and decreased anxiety and fear around visiting the hospital compared to children in control groups (Bloch & Toker, 2008; Husoy, 2013; Leonhardt et al., 2014). While there have been no formal research studies done in the United States, teddy bear clinics have been successfully implemented across the country in hospital and community settings (Creedon, 1989; Giefer & Sheverbush, 1999; Santen & Feldman, 1994; Zimmermann & Santen, 1997). More quantitative research must be done to establish a solid evidence-base for the practice of teddy bear clinics.

Find research and more information about teddy bear clinics here: http://www.childliferesources.com/articles/teddy-bear-clinics/

Read a review of the literature on teddy bear clinics here: Teddy Bear Clinics

Great video on the child life teddy bear clinic at Children’s Medical Center:

Continue reading “TEDDY BEAR CLINICS: A “PAWS-ON” HEALTH EDUCATION MODEL” »

RESEARCH OF THE DAY: PET THERAPY

RESEARCH OF THE DAY: PET THERAPY

This study examined the effects of the child life program and the “Pet Pals” program on hospitalized children at the University of Wisconsin Children’s Hospital. 30 children participated in a pet therapy session and 40 children participated in an open play session in the playroom supervised by child life specialists. Parents reported that their children were happier after the child life and pet therapy sessions than before the sessions; the pet therapy participants were ranked as happier than the child life participants. Data showed that children’s heart rates were higher after pet therapy than after the child life session, and salivary cortisol levels decreased after both child life and pet therapy sessions.

Here is a great video highlighting the pet therapy program at the Children’s Hospital of Pittsburgh:

Find more pet therapy research under the “research” tab of this website, and add your own!

RESEARCH OF THE DAY: PLAY

RESEARCH OF THE DAY: PLAY

Research article: The Importance of Play in Promoting Healthy Child Development and Maintaining Strong Parent-Child Bonds.

This article was cited in a great blog post:

http://commonhealth.wbur.org/2015/01/resolutions-after-a-trauma-sleep-play-love

You can find and add research articles under the “research” tab of this website!

RESEARCH: PARENTAL ANXIETY AND CHILDREN’S RESPONSES TO HOSPITALIZATION

RESEARCH: PARENTAL ANXIETY AND CHILDREN’S RESPONSES TO HOSPITALIZATION

For many parents, just the thought of needing to take their child to the hospital can induce anxiety. While parents do not like to imagine this situation, the truth is that many children will at some point require a trip to the hospital. In 2010 alone, there were over 25 million emergency department visits by children under 18 years old in the U.S. (Wier, Hao, Owens, & Washington, 2013). Given the likelihood of a hospital visit for their child, it is important for parents to be aware that current research shows strong correlations between parental anxiety, especially maternal anxiety, and children’s adverse reactions in the hospital setting. The research shows that not only can parental anxiety negatively affect children’s health while they are hospitalized, but it can also affect children’s behavior in the months and even years following hospitalization. It is important for parents to be aware of how their own anxiety can affect their child so that they can act appropriately and request proper services at the hospital in order to not pass on their anxiety to their children.

High parental anxiety correlates with children’s emotional distress in the hospital, especially during invasive procedures. Research by Dahlquist, Power, Cox, & Fernbach (1994) found that, compared to parents with lower anxiety, highly anxious parents of young children were less reassuring to their children prior to a medical procedure and were more agitated and less responsive to their children during the procedure. This likely communicated anxiety to the child and caused distress. They found that parental anxiety caused observed distress in older children as well. Wells & Schwebel (1987) found that, compared with high-stress mothers, moderately stressed mothers were more cooperative during an initial child medical exam, and their children recovered more rapidly.

Parental anxiety has also been shown to influence children’s post-hospital behavior and recovery. Melnyk and Feinstein (2001) found that mothers who were more anxious during their child’s hospitalization reported that their child had more negative post-hospital behavior changes. Small and Melnyk (2006) built on this research and found that maternal anxiety was the single most significant predictor of children’s negative behavioral changes, like aggression and hyperactivity, three and six months following hospitalization. In a study of children undergoing routine tonsillectomies, Skipper and Leonard (1968) found that mothers who experienced high stress while their children were hospitalized reported that following hospitalization, their children had disturbed sleep, excessive crying, greater difficulty eating, drinking, and relating to others, and regression in behavior, like bedwetting and thumb sucking.

More research still needs to be done on the complex relationship between parental anxiety and child anxiety in the hospital setting. Additionally, the effects of paternal anxiety and sibling anxiety on a hospitalized child need to be further explored. While there are gaps in the research, parents should take away from the current body of knowledge that it is important to remain calm around their child, model appropriate coping behavior, and practice self-care in order to manage anxiety and stress. There is trained hospital staff, like child life specialists, who can help parents understand procedures and learn coping skills. The studies by Melnyk and Feinstein (2001) and Dahlquist et al. (1994) suggest that teaching parents how to coach their children through medical procedures and about what behavior changes to expect in their children, respectively, results in reduced parental anxiety. If a parent is feeling anxious about their child’s upcoming hospital visit or during their child’s hospitalization, they should not hesitate to practice self care and/or reach out to hospital staff for help- it could make all the difference for their child.

For more information regarding parental anxiety and hospitalization, see the following links:

References:

Dahlquist, L., Power, T., Cox, C., & Fernbach, D. (1994). Parenting and Child Distress During Cancer Procedures: A Multidimensional Assessment. Children’s Health Care, 23(3), 149-166.

Melnyk, B., & Feinstein, N. (2001). Mediating functions of maternal anxiety and participation in care on young children’s posthospital adjustment. Research in Nursing & Health, 24(1), 18-26.

Skipper, J., & Leonard, R. (1968). Children, Stress, and Hospitalization: A Field Experiment. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 9(4), 275-287.

Small, L., & Melnyk, B. (2006). Early predictors of post-hospital adjustment problems in critically ill young children. Research in Nursing & Health, 29(6), 622-635. doi: 10.1002/nur.20169

Wells, R., & Schwebel, A. (1987). Chronically ill children and their mothers: Predictors of resilience and vulnerability to hospitalization and surgical stress. Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 8(2), 83-89.

Wier, L., Hao, Y., Owens, P., & Washington, R. (2013, June 1). Overview of Children in the Emergency Department, 2010. Retrieved from http://www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov/reports/statbriefs/sb157.pdf